Tutorial :Improve SQL query: Cumulative amounts over time

Question:

Suppose I have a SQL table of Awards, with fields for Date and Amount. I need to generate a table with a sequence of consecutive dates, the amount awarded in each day, and the running (cumulative) total.

``Date         Amount_Total   Amount_RunningTotal  ----------   ------------   -------------------  1/1/2010              100                   100  1/2/2010              300                   400  1/3/2010                0                   400  1/4/2010                0                   400  1/5/2010              400                   800  1/6/2010              100                   900  1/7/2010              500                  1400  1/8/2010              300                  1700  ``

This SQL works, but isn't as quick as I'd like:

``Declare @StartDate datetime, @EndDate datetime   Select @StartDate=Min(Date), @EndDate=Max(Date) from Awards     ; With     /* Returns consecutive from numbers 1 through the   number of days for which we have data */  Nbrs(n) as (     Select 1 Union All      Select 1+n      From Nbrs      Where n<=DateDiff(d,@StartDate,@EndDate)),    /* Returns all dates @StartDate to @EndDate */  AllDays as (     Select Date=DateAdd(d, n, @StartDate)      From Nbrs )     /* Returns totals for each day */  Select    d.Date,   Amount_Total = (          Select Sum(a.Amount)           From Awards a           Where a.Date=d.Date),   Amount_RunningTotal = (          Select Sum(a.Amount)           From Awards a           Where a.Date<=d.Date)  From AllDays d  Order by d.Date   Option(MAXRECURSION 1000)  ``

I tried adding an index to Awards.Date, but it made a very minimal difference.

Before I resort to other strategies like caching, is there a more efficient way to code the running total calculation?

Solution:1

I generally use a temporary table for this:

``DECLARE @Temp TABLE  (      [Date] date PRIMARY KEY,      Amount int NOT NULL,      RunningTotal int NULL  )    INSERT @Temp ([Date], Amount)      SELECT [Date], Amount      FROM ...    DECLARE @RunningTotal int    UPDATE @Temp  SET @RunningTotal = RunningTotal = @RunningTotal + Amount    SELECT * FROM @Temp  ``

If you can't make the date column a primary key then you need to include an `ORDER BY [Date]` in the `INSERT` statement.

Also, this question's been asked a few times before. See here or search for "sql running total". The solution I posted is, as far as I know, still the one with the best performance, and also easy to write.

Solution:2

I don't have a database setup in front of me so I hope the below works first shot. A pattern like this should result in a much speedier query...you're just joining twice, similar amount of aggregation:

``Declare @StartDate datetime, @EndDate datetime   Select @StartDate=Min(Date), @EndDate=Max(Date) from Awards   ;   WITH AllDays(Date) AS (SELECT @StartDate UNION ALL SELECT DATEADD(d, 1, Date)                          FROM AllDays                          WHERE Date < @EndDate)    SELECT d.Date, sum(day.Amount) Amount_Total, sum(running.Amount) Amount_RunningTotal  FROM AllDays d         LEFT JOIN (SELECT date, SUM(Amount) As Amount                  FROM Awards                   GROUP BY Date) day            ON d.Date = day.Date       LEFT JOIN (SELECT date, SUM(Amount) As Amount                  FROM Awards                   GROUP BY Date) running                   ON (d.Date >= running.Date)  Group by d.Date  Order by d.Date   ``

Note: I changed your table expression up top, it was leaving out the first day before...if this is intentional just slap a where clause on this to exclude it. Let me know in the comments if this doesn't work or doesn't fit and I'll make whatever adjustments.

Solution:3

Here's a working solution based on @Aaronaught's answer. The only gotcha I had to overcome in T-SQL was that `@RunningTotal` etc. can't be null (need to be converted to zero).

``Declare @StartDate datetime, @EndDate datetime   Select @StartDate=Min(StartDate),@EndDate=Max(StartDate) from Awards    /* @AllDays: Contains one row per date from @StartDate to @EndDate */  Declare @AllDays Table (      Date datetime Primary Key)  ; With   Nbrs(n) as (      Select 0 Union All       Select 1+n from Nbrs       Where n<=DateDiff(d,@StartDate,@EndDate)       )  Insert into @AllDays  Select Date=DateAdd(d, n, @StartDate)   From Nbrs  Option(MAXRECURSION 10000) /* Will explode if working with more than 10000 days (~27 years) */    /* @AmountsByDate: Contains one row per date for which we have an Award, along with the totals for that date */   Declare @AmountsByDate Table (      Date datetime Primary Key,      Amount money)  Insert into @AmountsByDate  Select       StartDate,       Amount=Sum(Amount)   from Awards a  Group by StartDate    /* @Result: Joins @AllDays and @AmountsByDate etc. to provide totals and running totals for every day of the award */  Declare @Result Table (      Date datetime Primary Key,      Amount money,      RunningTotal money)  Insert into @Result   Select       d.Date,      IsNull(bt.Amount,0),      RunningTotal=0  from @AllDays d  Left Join @AmountsByDate bt on d.Date=bt.Date  Order by d.Date    Declare @RunningTotal money Set @RunningTotal=0  Update @Result Set @RunningTotal = RunningTotal = @RunningTotal + Amount    Select * from @Result   ``

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