Tutorial :sql query joins multiple tables - too slow (8 tables)



Question:

i'm trying to join 8 tables into one in order to create index used by other application, my query is like : (my mysql skill's very amateur)

SELECT t1_id, t2_name, t3_name, t4_name, t5_name,          t6_name, t7_name, t8_name, t9_name   FROM t1     LEFT JOIN t2 ON (t1_id = t2_id)     LEFT JOIN t3 ON (t3_id = t1_id)     LEFT JOIN t4 ON (t4_id = t1_id)    LEFT JOIN t5 ON (t5_id = t1_id)    LEFT JOIN t6 ON (t6_id = t1_id)     LEFT JOIN t7 ON (t7_id = t1_id)    LEFT JOIN t8 ON (t8_id = t1_id)    LEFT JOIN t9 ON (t9_id = t1_id)  

i can't even see the query results when i executing it, any ways to speed it up? :) any kinds of help is appreciated, but it's better be only one query (outside application rules)

thanks in advance


Solution:1

I had a similar problem with several lookup tables joining to a large table with all id fields indexed. To monitor the effect of the joins on query time execution, I ran my query several times (limiting to first 100 rows), adding a Join to an additional table each time. After joining 12 tables, there was no significant change in query execution time. By the time I had joined the 13th table the execution time jumped to a 1 second; 14th table 4 seconds, 15th table 20 s, 16th 90 seconds.

Keijro's suggestion to use a correlated subqueries instead of joins e.g.

SELECT t1_id,           (select t2_name from t2 where t1_id = t2_id),           (select t3_name from t3 where t1_id = t3_id),           (select t4_name from t4 where t1_id = t4_id),           (select t5_name from t5 where t1_id = t5_id),           (select t6_name from t6 where t1_id = t6_id),           (select t7_name from t7 where t1_id = t7_id),           (select t8_name from t8 where t1_id = t8_id),           (select t9_name from t9 where t1_id = t9_id)  FROM t1  

improved query performance dramatically. In fact the subqueries did not seem to lengthen the time to execute the query (the query was almost instanteous).

I am a little suprised as I thought correlated subqueries perform worse than joins.


Solution:2

Depending on how much data is in the tables, you may need to place indexes on the columns that are being joined against. Often slow querying speed comes down to lack of an index in the right place.

Also:

LEFT JOINs are slower than INNER JOINs (though this is dependent on what you're doing exactly) - can you accomplish what you're looking for with inner joins?


Solution:3

How much data are we talking about ? It might be you have a lot of data and as the where clause is being run at the end of the query process you are joining huge volumes of data before filtering it.

In that case its better to filter the data as soon as possible so if you can restrict the data from T1 in the first inner select all the other joins will join to a more limited set of data.

Select <your fields> from  (  Select * from t1 where t1_id = t1_value  ) t1    Inner join t2  on t1.ID = t2.ID  ...  

if its not masses of data; check your indexes are correct then check server type things; index fragmentation; disk queues etc.


Solution:4

It would help a bit if you could post the explain plan of the query.

But, first of all, you have indexes on all the fields used in the join? something like CREATE INDEX ix_t2_id on t2 (t2_id, t2_name);

Instead of the joins you could do something like

SELECT t1_id,       (select t2_name from t2 where t1_id = t2_id),       (select t3_name from t3 where t1_id = t3_id),       (select t4_name from t4 where t1_id = t4_id),       (select t5_name from t5 where t1_id = t5_id),       (select t6_name from t6 where t1_id = t6_id),       (select t7_name from t7 where t1_id = t7_id),       (select t8_name from t8 where t1_id = t8_id),       (select t9_name from t9 where t1_id = t9_id)   FROM t1   

But, with a good query planner, that shouldn't differ from the joins.


Solution:5

If you need all the rows of t1, and you left join on the primary key (I guess it's also the clustered index) of the other tables, there is no way to improve the speed of the query.

To improve performance you either need to reduce the result set or perform a nasty trick (eg make a denormalized copy of the data).


Solution:6

From your query plan I can conclude that the tables referred to as s, n and q do not have an index on the field they are being joined on.

Since there are lot of rows in these tables (about 400,000 rows in their cartesian product) and MySQL's only way to do JOIN's is using NESTED LOOPS, it will really take forever.

Create an index on these tables or define the joined field as a PRIMARY KEY.


Solution:7

As i can see, t1 table is the one which is being joined with all the tables, instead of putting them in a single query with so many joins, you can possibly try a Union of different queries something like this.

SELECT  t1_id, t2_name   FROM    t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON (t1_id = t2_id)  union   SELECT  t1_id, t3_name   FROM    t1 LEFT JOIN t3 ON (t1_id = t3_id)  

however, in that case the result you will get will not have 8 columns but just 1 column. not sure if that is an option available with you.

one more thing, which you must in whatever solution you implement is - create appropriate index on all your tables. the best practice of index columns is to create it on the column which is most frequently used for joins or where clause.


Solution:8

Depending on your version of SQL server, simply putting your query into a stored procedure may make a big difference. Try this after you have tried the other optimizations first.(Yes, I know there are cached execution plans and other internal server optimizations, but in my practical real-world experience, stored procedures can execute faster.)


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