Tutorial :How to include external Python code to use in other files?



Question:

If you have a collection of methods in a file, is there a way to include those files in another file, but call them without any prefix (i.e. file prefix)?

So if I have:

[Math.py]  def Calculate ( num )  

How do I call it like this:

[Tool.py]  using Math.py    for i in range ( 5 ) :      Calculate ( i )  


Solution:1

You will need to import the other file as a module like this:

import Math  

If you don't want to prefix your Calculate function with the module name then do this:

from Math import Calculate  

If you want to import all members of a module then do this:

from Math import *  

Edit: Here is a good chapter from Dive Into Python that goes a bit more in depth on this topic.


Solution:2

Just write the "include" command :

import os    def include(filename):      if os.path.exists(filename):           execfile(filename)      include('myfile.py')  

@Deleet :

@bfieck remark is correct, for python 2 and 3 compatibility, you need either :

Python 2 and 3: alternative 1

from past.builtins import execfile    execfile('myfile.py')  

Python 2 and 3: alternative 2

exec(compile(open('myfile.py').read()))  


Solution:3

If you use:

import Math  

then that will allow you to use Math's functions, but you must do Math.Calculate, so that is obviously what you don't want.

If you want to import a module's functions without having to prefix them, you must explicitly name them, like:

from Math import Calculate, Add, Subtract  

Now, you can reference Calculate, Add, and Subtract just by their names. If you wanted to import ALL functions from Math, do:

from Math import *  

However, you should be very careful when doing this with modules whose contents you are unsure of. If you import two modules who contain definitions for the same function name, one function will overwrite the other, with you none the wiser.


Solution:4

I've found the python inspect module to be very useful

For example with teststuff.py

import inspect    def dostuff():      return __name__    DOSTUFF_SOURCE = inspect.getsource(dostuff)    if __name__ == "__main__":        dostuff()  

And from the another script or the python console

import teststuff    exec(DOSTUFF_SOURCE)    dostuff()  

And now dostuff should be in the local scope and dostuff() will return the console or scripts _name_ whereas executing test.dostuff() will return the python modules name.


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