Tutorial :How to download and save a file from Internet using Java?


There is an online file (such as http://www.example.com/information.asp) I need to grab and save to a directory. I know there are several methods for grabbing and reading online files (URLs) line-by-line, but is there a way to just download and save the file using Java?


Give Java NIO a try:

URL website = new URL("http://www.website.com/information.asp");  ReadableByteChannel rbc = Channels.newChannel(website.openStream());  FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream("information.html");  fos.getChannel().transferFrom(rbc, 0, Long.MAX_VALUE);  

Using transferFrom() is potentially much more efficient than a simple loop that reads from the source channel and writes to this channel. Many operating systems can transfer bytes directly from the source channel into the filesystem cache without actually copying them.

Check more about it here.

Note: The third parameter in transferFrom is the maximum number of bytes to transfer. Integer.MAX_VALUE will transfer at most 2^31 bytes, Long.MAX_VALUE will allow at most 2^63 bytes (larger than any file in existence).


Use apache commons-io, just one line code:

FileUtils.copyURLToFile(URL, File)  


Simpler nio usage:

URL website = new URL("http://www.website.com/information.asp");  try (InputStream in = website.openStream()) {      Files.copy(in, target, StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING);  }  


public void saveUrl(final String filename, final String urlString)          throws MalformedURLException, IOException {      BufferedInputStream in = null;      FileOutputStream fout = null;      try {          in = new BufferedInputStream(new URL(urlString).openStream());          fout = new FileOutputStream(filename);            final byte data[] = new byte[1024];          int count;          while ((count = in.read(data, 0, 1024)) != -1) {              fout.write(data, 0, count);          }      } finally {          if (in != null) {              in.close();          }          if (fout != null) {              fout.close();          }      }  }  

You'll need to handle exceptions, probably external to this method.


Downloading a file requires you to read it, either way you will have to go through the file in some way. Instead of line by line, you can just read it by bytes from the stream:

BufferedInputStream in = new BufferedInputStream(new URL("http://www.website.com/information.asp").openStream())      byte data[] = new byte[1024];      int count;      while((count = in.read(data,0,1024)) != -1)      {          out.write(data, 0, count);      }  


When using Java 7+ use the following method to download a file from the Internet and save it to some directory:

private static Path download(String sourceURL, String targetDirectory) throws IOException  {      URL url = new URL(sourceURL);      String fileName = sourceURL.substring(sourceURL.lastIndexOf('/') + 1, sourceURL.length());      Path targetPath = new File(targetDirectory + File.separator + fileName).toPath();      Files.copy(url.openStream(), targetPath, StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING);        return targetPath;  }  

Documentation here.


This answer is almost exactly like selected answer but with two enhancements: it's a method and it closes out the FileOutputStream object:

    public static void downloadFileFromURL(String urlString, File destination) {              try {              URL website = new URL(urlString);              ReadableByteChannel rbc;              rbc = Channels.newChannel(website.openStream());              FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(destination);              fos.getChannel().transferFrom(rbc, 0, Long.MAX_VALUE);              fos.close();              rbc.close();          } catch (IOException e) {              e.printStackTrace();          }      }  


import java.io.*;  import java.net.*;    public class filedown {      public static void download(String address, String localFileName) {          OutputStream out = null;          URLConnection conn = null;          InputStream in = null;            try {              URL url = new URL(address);              out = new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(localFileName));              conn = url.openConnection();              in = conn.getInputStream();              byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];                int numRead;              long numWritten = 0;                while ((numRead = in.read(buffer)) != -1) {                  out.write(buffer, 0, numRead);                  numWritten += numRead;              }                System.out.println(localFileName + "\t" + numWritten);          }           catch (Exception exception) {               exception.printStackTrace();          }           finally {              try {                  if (in != null) {                      in.close();                  }                  if (out != null) {                      out.close();                  }              }               catch (IOException ioe) {              }          }      }        public static void download(String address) {          int lastSlashIndex = address.lastIndexOf('/');          if (lastSlashIndex >= 0 &&          lastSlashIndex < address.length() - 1) {              download(address, (new URL(address)).getFile());          }           else {              System.err.println("Could not figure out local file name for "+address);          }      }        public static void main(String[] args) {          for (int i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {              download(args[i]);          }      }  }  


It's an old question but here's an elegant JDK-only solution:

public static void download(String url, String fileName) throws Exception {      try (InputStream in = URI.create(url).toURL().openStream()) {          Files.copy(in, Paths.get(fileName));      }  }  

Concise, readable, properly closed resources leveraging nothing but the core JDK and language features.


Personally, I've found Apache's HttpClient to be more than capable of everything I've needed to do with regards to this. Here is a great tutorial on using HttpClient


This is another java7 variant based on Brian Risk's answer with usage of try-with statement:

public static void downloadFileFromURL(String urlString, File destination) throws Throwable {          URL website = new URL(urlString);        try(                ReadableByteChannel rbc = Channels.newChannel(website.openStream());                FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(destination);                  ){            fos.getChannel().transferFrom(rbc, 0, Long.MAX_VALUE);        }      }  


There are many elegant and efficient answers here. But the conciseness can make us lose some useful information. In particular, one often does not want to consider a connection error an Exception, and one might want to treat differently some kind of network-related errors - for example, to decide if we should retry the download.

Here's a method that does not throw Exceptions for network errors (only for truly exceptional problems, as malformed url or problems writing to the file)

/**   * Downloads from a (http/https) URL and saves to a file.    * Does not consider a connection error an Exception. Instead it returns:   *     *    0=ok     *    1=connection interrupted, timeout (but something was read)   *    2=not found (FileNotFoundException) (404)    *    3=server error (500...)    *    4=could not connect: connection timeout (no internet?) java.net.SocketTimeoutException   *    5=could not connect: (server down?) java.net.ConnectException   *    6=could not resolve host (bad host, or no internet - no dns)   *    * @param file File to write. Parent directory will be created if necessary   * @param url  http/https url to connect   * @param secsConnectTimeout Seconds to wait for connection establishment   * @param secsReadTimeout Read timeout in seconds - trasmission will abort if it freezes more than this    * @return See above   * @throws IOException Only if URL is malformed or if could not create the file   */  public static int saveUrl(final Path file, final URL url,     int secsConnectTimeout, int secsReadTimeout) throws IOException {      Files.createDirectories(file.getParent()); // make sure parent dir exists , this can throw exception      URLConnection conn = url.openConnection(); // can throw exception if bad url      if( secsConnectTimeout > 0 ) conn.setConnectTimeout(secsConnectTimeout * 1000);      if( secsReadTimeout > 0 ) conn.setReadTimeout(secsReadTimeout * 1000);      int ret = 0;      boolean somethingRead = false;      try (InputStream is = conn.getInputStream()) {          try (BufferedInputStream in = new BufferedInputStream(is); OutputStream fout = Files                  .newOutputStream(file)) {              final byte data[] = new byte[8192];              int count;              while((count = in.read(data)) > 0) {                  somethingRead = true;                  fout.write(data, 0, count);              }          }      } catch(java.io.IOException e) {           int httpcode = 999;          try {              httpcode = ((HttpURLConnection) conn).getResponseCode();          } catch(Exception ee) {}          if( somethingRead && e instanceof java.net.SocketTimeoutException ) ret = 1;          else if( e instanceof FileNotFoundException && httpcode >= 400 && httpcode < 500 ) ret = 2;           else if( httpcode >= 400 && httpcode < 600 ) ret = 3;           else if( e instanceof java.net.SocketTimeoutException ) ret = 4;           else if( e instanceof java.net.ConnectException ) ret = 5;           else if( e instanceof java.net.UnknownHostException ) ret = 6;            else throw e;      }      return ret;  }  


There is an issue with simple usage of:

org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils.copyURLToFile(URL, File)   

if you need to download and save very large files, or in general if you need automatic retries in case connection is dropped.

What I suggest in such cases is Apache HttpClient along with org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils. For example:

GetMethod method = new GetMethod(resource_url);  try {      int statusCode = client.executeMethod(method);      if (statusCode != HttpStatus.SC_OK) {          logger.error("Get method failed: " + method.getStatusLine());      }             org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils.copyInputStreamToFile(          method.getResponseBodyAsStream(), new File(resource_file));      } catch (HttpException e) {          e.printStackTrace();      } catch (IOException e) {          e.printStackTrace();      } finally {      method.releaseConnection();  }  


It's possible to download the file with with Apache's HttpComponents instead of Commons-IO. This code allows you to download a file in Java according to its URL and save it at the specific destination.

public static boolean saveFile(URL fileURL, String fileSavePath) {        boolean isSucceed = true;        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();        HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(fileURL.toString());      httpGet.addHeader("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:34.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/34.0");      httpGet.addHeader("Referer", "https://www.google.com");        try {          CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = httpClient.execute(httpGet);          HttpEntity fileEntity = httpResponse.getEntity();            if (fileEntity != null) {              FileUtils.copyInputStreamToFile(fileEntity.getContent(), new File(fileSavePath));          }        } catch (IOException e) {          isSucceed = false;      }        httpGet.releaseConnection();        return isSucceed;  }  

In contrast to the single line of code:

FileUtils.copyURLToFile(fileURL, new File(fileSavePath),                          URLS_FETCH_TIMEOUT, URLS_FETCH_TIMEOUT);  

this code will give you more control over a process and let you specify not only time outs but User-Agent and Referer values, which are critical for many web-sites.


To summarize (and somehow polish and update) previous answers. The three following methods are practically equivalent. (I added explicit timeouts because I think they are a must, nobody wants a download to freeze forever when the connection is lost.)

public static void saveUrl1(final Path file, final URL url,     int secsConnectTimeout, int secsReadTimeout))       throws MalformedURLException, IOException {      // Files.createDirectories(file.getParent()); // optional, make sure parent dir exists      try (BufferedInputStream in = new BufferedInputStream(         streamFromUrl(url, secsConnectTimeout,secsReadTimeout)  );          OutputStream fout = Files.newOutputStream(file)) {          final byte data[] = new byte[8192];          int count;          while((count = in.read(data)) > 0)              fout.write(data, 0, count);      }  }    public static void saveUrl2(final Path file, final URL url,     int secsConnectTimeout, int secsReadTimeout))        throws MalformedURLException, IOException {      // Files.createDirectories(file.getParent()); // optional, make sure parent dir exists      try (ReadableByteChannel rbc = Channels.newChannel(        streamFromUrl(url, secsConnectTimeout,secsReadTimeout)           );          FileChannel channel = FileChannel.open(file,               StandardOpenOption.CREATE,                StandardOpenOption.TRUNCATE_EXISTING,               StandardOpenOption.WRITE)           ) {          channel.transferFrom(rbc, 0, Long.MAX_VALUE);      }  }    public static void saveUrl3(final Path file, final URL url,      int secsConnectTimeout, int secsReadTimeout))        throws MalformedURLException, IOException {      // Files.createDirectories(file.getParent()); // optional, make sure parent dir exists      try (InputStream in = streamFromUrl(url, secsConnectTimeout,secsReadTimeout) ) {          Files.copy(in, file, StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING);      }  }    public static InputStream streamFromUrl(URL url,int secsConnectTimeout,int secsReadTimeout) throws IOException {      URLConnection conn = url.openConnection();      if(secsConnectTimeout>0) conn.setConnectTimeout(secsConnectTimeout*1000);      if(secsReadTimeout>0) conn.setReadTimeout(secsReadTimeout*1000);      return conn.getInputStream();  }  

I don't find significant differences, all seem right to me. They are safe and efficient. (Differences in speed seem hardly relevant - I write 180Mb from local server to a SSD disk in times that fluctuate around 1.2 to 1.5 segs). They don't require external libraries. All work with arbitrary sizes and (to my experience) HTTP redirections.

Additionally, all throw FileNotFoundException if the resource is not found (error 404, typically), and java.net.UnknownHostException if the DNS resolution failed; other IOException correspond to errors during transmission.

(Marked as community wiki, feel free to add info or corrections)


public class DownloadManager {        static String urls = "[WEBSITE NAME]";        public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException{          URL url = verify(urls);          HttpURLConnection connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();          InputStream in = null;          String filename = url.getFile();          filename = filename.substring(filename.lastIndexOf('/') + 1);          FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream("C:\\Java2_programiranje/Network/DownloadTest1/Project/Output" + File.separator + filename);          in = connection.getInputStream();          int read = -1;          byte[] buffer = new byte[4096];          while((read = in.read(buffer)) != -1){              out.write(buffer, 0, read);              System.out.println("[SYSTEM/INFO]: Downloading file...");          }          in.close();          out.close();          System.out.println("[SYSTEM/INFO]: File Downloaded!");      }      private static URL verify(String url){          if(!url.toLowerCase().startsWith("http://")) {              return null;          }          URL verifyUrl = null;            try{              verifyUrl = new URL(url);          }catch(Exception e){              e.printStackTrace();          }          return verifyUrl;      }  }  


You can do this in 1 line using netloader for Java:

new NetFile(new File("my/zips/1.zip"), "https://example.com/example.zip", -1).load(); //returns true if succeed, otherwise false.  


If you are behind a proxy, you can set the proxies in java program as below:

        Properties systemSettings = System.getProperties();          systemSettings.put("proxySet", "true");          systemSettings.put("https.proxyHost", "https proxy of your org");          systemSettings.put("https.proxyPort", "8080");  

If you are not behind a proxy, don't include the lines above in your code. Full working code to download a file when you are behind a proxy.

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {          String url="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bpjoshi/fxservice/master/src/test/java/com/bpjoshi/fxservice/api/TradeControllerTest.java";          OutputStream outStream=null;          URLConnection connection=null;          InputStream is=null;          File targetFile=null;          URL server=null;          //Setting up proxies          Properties systemSettings = System.getProperties();              systemSettings.put("proxySet", "true");              systemSettings.put("https.proxyHost", "https proxy of my organisation");              systemSettings.put("https.proxyPort", "8080");              //The same way we could also set proxy for http              System.setProperty("java.net.useSystemProxies", "true");              //code to fetch file          try {              server=new URL(url);              connection = server.openConnection();              is = connection.getInputStream();              byte[] buffer = new byte[is.available()];              is.read(buffer);                    targetFile = new File("src/main/resources/targetFile.java");                  outStream = new FileOutputStream(targetFile);                  outStream.write(buffer);          } catch (MalformedURLException e) {              System.out.println("THE URL IS NOT CORRECT ");              e.printStackTrace();          } catch (IOException e) {              System.out.println("Io exception");              e.printStackTrace();          }          finally{              if(outStream!=null) outStream.close();          }      }  


There is method $.fetch() in underscore-java library.


  <groupId>com.github.javadev</groupId>    <artifactId>underscore</artifactId>    <version>1.31</version>  

Code example:

import com.github.underscore.lodash.$;    public class Download {      public static void main(String ... args) {          String text = $.fetch("https://stackoverflow.com/questions"          + "/921262/how-to-download-and-save-a-file-from-internet-using-java").text();      }  }  


Below is the sample code to download movie from internet with java code:

URL url = new   URL("");      BufferedInputStream bufferedInputStream = new  BufferedInputStream(url.openStream());      FileOutputStream stream = new FileOutputStream("/home/sachin/Desktop/test.mkv");          int count=0;      byte[] b1 = new byte[100];        while((count = bufferedInputStream.read(b1)) != -1) {          System.out.println("b1:"+b1+">>"+count+ ">> KB downloaded:"+new File("/home/sachin/Desktop/test.mkv").length()/1024);          stream.write(b1, 0, count);      }  

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