Tutorial :Accurate timing of functions in python



Question:

I'm programming in python on windows and would like to accurately measure the time it takes for a function to run. I have written a function "time_it" that takes another function, runs it, and returns the time it took to run.

def time_it(f, *args):      start = time.clock()      f(*args)      return (time.clock() - start)*1000  

i call this 1000 times and average the result. (the 1000 constant at the end is to give the answer in milliseconds.)

This function seems to work but i have this nagging feeling that I'm doing something wrong, and that by doing it this way I'm using more time than the function actually uses when its running.

Is there a more standard or accepted way to do this?

When i changed my test function to call a print so that it takes longer, my time_it function returns an average of 2.5 ms while the cProfile.run('f()') returns and average of 7.0 ms. I figured my function would overestimate the time if anything, what is going on here?

One additional note, it is the relative time of functions compared to each other that i care about, not the absolute time as this will obviously vary depending on hardware and other factors.


Solution:1

Instead of writing your own profiling code, I suggest you check out the built-in Python profilers (profile or cProfile, depending on your needs): http://docs.python.org/library/profile.html


Solution:2

Use the timeit module from the Python standard library.

Basic usage:

from timeit import Timer    # first argument is the code to be run, the second "setup" argument is only run once,  # and it not included in the execution time.  t = Timer("""x.index(123)""", setup="""x = range(1000)""")    print t.timeit() # prints float, for example 5.8254  # ..or..  print t.timeit(1000) # repeat 1000 times instead of the default 1million  


Solution:3

You can create a "timeme" decorator like so

import time                                                    def timeme(method):      def wrapper(*args, **kw):          startTime = int(round(time.time() * 1000))          result = method(*args, **kw)          endTime = int(round(time.time() * 1000))            print(endTime - startTime,'ms')          return result        return wrapper    @timeme  def func1(a,b,c = 'c',sleep = 1):      time.sleep(sleep)      print(a,b,c)    func1('a','b','c',0)  func1('a','b','c',0.5)  func1('a','b','c',0.6)  func1('a','b','c',1)  


Solution:4

This code is very inaccurate

total= 0  for i in range(1000):      start= time.clock()      function()      end= time.clock()      total += end-start  time= total/1000  

This code is less inaccurate

start= time.clock()  for i in range(1000):      function()  end= time.clock()  time= (end-start)/1000  

The very inaccurate suffers from measurement bias if the run-time of the function is close to the accuracy of the clock. Most of the measured times are merely random numbers between 0 and a few ticks of the clock.

Depending on your system workload, the "time" you observe from a single function may be entirely an artifact of OS scheduling and other uncontrollable overheads.

The second version (less inaccurate) has less measurement bias. If your function is really fast, you may need to run it 10,000 times to damp out OS scheduling and other overheads.

Both are, of course, terribly misleading. The run time for your program -- as a whole -- is not the sum of the function run-times. You can only use the numbers for relative comparisons. They are not absolute measurements that convey much meaning.


Solution:5

If you want to time a python method even if block you measure may throw, one good approach is to use with statement. Define some Timer class as

import time    class Timer:          def __enter__(self):          self.start = time.clock()          return self        def __exit__(self, *args):          self.end = time.clock()          self.interval = self.end - self.start  

Then you may want to time a connection method that may throw. Use

import httplib    with Timer() as t:      conn = httplib.HTTPConnection('google.com')      conn.request('GET', '/')    print('Request took %.03f sec.' % t.interval)  

__exit()__ method will be called even if the connection request thows. More precisely, you'd have you use try finally to see the result in case it throws, as with

try:      with Timer() as t:          conn = httplib.HTTPConnection('google.com')          conn.request('GET', '/')  finally:      print('Request took %.03f sec.' % t.interval)  

More details here.


Solution:6

This is neater

from contextlib import contextmanager    import time  @contextmanager  def timeblock(label):      start = time.clock()      try:          yield      finally:          end = time.clock()          print ('{} : {}'.format(label, end - start))        with timeblock("just a test"):              print "yippee"  


Solution:7

Similar to @AlexMartelli's answer

import timeit  timeit.timeit(fun, number=10000)  

can do the trick.


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